Risk Codes (R-phrases)

 

are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC,[1] where translations into other EU languages may be found. These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization.

 

Risk phrases

 

Phrase code

 

Interpretation

 

R1

Explosive when dry

R2

Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition

R3

Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition

R4

Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds

R5

Heating may cause an explosion

R6

Explosive with or without contact with air

R7

May cause fire

R8

Contact with combustible material may cause fire

R9

Explosive when mixed with combustible material

R10

Flammable

R11

Highly flammable

R12

Extremely flammable

R14

Reacts violently with water

R15

Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases

R16

Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances

R17

Spontaneously flammable in air

R18

In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture

R19

May form explosive peroxides

R20

Harmful by inhalation

R21

Harmful in contact with skin

R22

Harmful if swallowed

R23

Toxic by inhalation

R24

Toxic in contact with skin

R25

Toxic if swallowed

R26

Very toxic by inhalation

R27

Very toxic in contact with skin

R28

Very toxic if swallowed

R29

Contact with water liberates toxic gas.

R30

Can become highly flammable in use

R31

Contact with acids liberates toxic gas

R32

Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas

R33

Danger of cumulative effects

R34

Causes burns

R35

Causes severe burns

R36

Irritating to eyes

R37

Irritating to respiratory system

R38

Irritating to skin

R39

Danger of very serious irreversible effects

R40

Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect

R41

Risk of serious damage to eyes

R42

May cause sensitisation by inhalation

R43

May cause sensitisation by skin contact

R44

Risk of explosion if heated under confinement

R45

May cause cancer

R46

May cause inheritable genetic damage

R48

Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure

R49

May cause cancer by inhalation

R50

Very toxic to aquatic organisms

R51

Toxic to aquatic organisms

R52

Harmful to aquatic organisms

R53

May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

R54

Toxic to flora

R55

Toxic to fauna

R56

Toxic to soil organisms

R57

Toxic to bees

R58

May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment

R59

Dangerous for the ozone layer

R60

May impair fertility

R61

May cause harm to the unborn child

R62

Possible risk of impaired fertility

R63

Possible risk of harm to the unborn child

R64

May cause harm to breast-fed babies

R65

Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed

R66

Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking

R67

Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness

R68

Possible risk of irreversible effects

 

Combinations

 

Phrase code  

 

Interpretation

 

R14/15

Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases

R15/29

Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gases

R14/15/29

Reacts violently with water, liberating toxic, extremely flammable gases

R20/21

Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin

R20/22

Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed

R20/21/22

Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R21/22

Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed

R23/24

Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin

R23/25

Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed

R23/24/25

Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R24/25

Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed

R26/27

Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin

R26/28

Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed

R26/27/28

Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R27/28

Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed

R36/37

Irritating to eyes and respiratory system

R36/38

Irritating to eyes and skin

R36/37/38

Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin

R37/38

Irritating to respiratory system and skin

R39/23

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation

R39/24

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin

R39/25

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed

R39/23/24

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin

R39/23/25

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed

R39/24/25

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed

R39/23/24/25

Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R39/26

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation

R39/27

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin

R39/28

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed

R39/26/27

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin

R39/26/28

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed

R39/27/28

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed

R39/26/27/28

Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R42/43

May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact

R45/46

May cause cancer and heritable genetic damage

R48/20

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation

R48/21

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin

R48/22

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

R48/20/21

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin

R48/20/22

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed

R48/21/22

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed

R48/20/21/22

Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R48/23

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation

R48/24

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin

R48/25

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed

R48/23/24

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin

R48/23/25

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed

R48/24/25

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed

R48/23/24/25

Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

R50/53

Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

R51/53

Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

R52/53

Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

R68/20

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation

R68/21

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin

R68/22

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed

R68/20/21

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin

R68/20/22

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed

R68/21/22

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed

R68/20/21/22

Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed